Etizolam has a relatively fast onset of action and symptomatic relief. 1 - 2 mg of Etizolam is of similar potency to 10mg Diazepam. For anxiety disorders associated with depression, 1 mg can be administered several times over the course of a day. Smaller doses may alleviate symptoms of panic, and it can be used before bed for relief of insomnia.
- 1 Chemistry
- 2 Pharmacology
- 3 Subjective effects
- 3.1 Physical Effects
- 3.2 Cognitive Effects
- 4 Toxicity and harm potential
- 4.1 Lethal dosage
- 4.2 Tolerance and addiction potential
- 5 Legal issues
- 6 See also
- 7 References
ChemistryEtizolam is a structural relative of benzodiazepines, where by the benzene ring has been replaced by a thiophene ring, classifying it as a thienodiazepine. It is classed as a research chemical.
PharmacologyBenzodiazepines produce a variety of effects by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor site and magnifying the efficiency and effects of the neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting on its receptors. As this site is the most prolific inhibitory receptor within the brain its modulation results in the sedating (or calming effects) of etizolam on the nervous system.
Subjective effectsThe effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. The listed effects will rarely if ever occur all at once but heavier dosages will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects.
Physical EffectsThe physical effects of Etizolam can be broken down into 5 components all of which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. These are described below and generally include:
- Sedation - In terms of energy level alterations, Etizolam is extremely sedating and often results in an overwhelmingly lethargic state. At higher levels, this causes users to suddenly feel as if they are extremely sleep deprived and have not slept for days, forcing them to sit down and generally feel as if they are constantly on the verge of passing out instead of engaging in physical activities. This sense of sleep deprivation increases proportional to dosage and eventually becomes powerful enough to force a person into complete unconsciousness.
- Respiratory depression
- Muscle relaxation
- Motor control loss
Cognitive EffectsThe cognitive effects of Etizolam can be broken down into 7 components all of which progressively intensify proportional to dosage. The general head space of Etizolam is described by many as one of intense sedation and decreased inhibition. It contains a large number of typical depressant cognitive effects.
The most prominent of these cognitive effects generally include:
- Anxiety suppression
- Thought deceleration
- Information processing suppression
- Compulsive redosing
Toxicity and harm potential
- Blepharospasms (twitching eyelid) can occur with long term use.
- Rarely, Erythema annulare centrifugum skin lesions have been reported.
Lethal dosageThe lethal dosage of Etizolam has not been established, however like many benzodiazepines it has a large therapeutic index and margin of safety. Complications may arise when administered in excess. Intentional overdoses have been reported.
As with all GABAergic drugs, overdose can be lethal when mixed with other depressants including alcohol or opioids.
Tolerance and addiction potentialTolerance will develop to the sedative-hypnotic effects within a couple of days of repeated administration. Abrupt discontinuation of Etizolam, following regular dosing over several days, can result in a withdrawal phase which includes rebound symptoms such as increased anxiety and insomnia. It is possible to gradually reduce the dose over the course of several days, which will lengthen the duration of the withdrawal period, but reduce the perceived intensity.
Thienodiazepine discontinuation is notoriously difficult; it is potentially life threatening for individuals using regularly to discontinue use without tapering their dose over a period of weeks. There is an increased risk of seizure following discontinuation of Etizolam. Drugs which lower the seizure threshold such as tramadol should be avoided during withdrawal.
- United States August 2014 A Connecticut man was charge with IV count's possession of Etizolam after being involved with a DUI In the same month the state of Arkansas listed Etizolam as a Schedule I drug under their drug scheduling guidelines.
- Germany: Phenazepam and Etizolam were controlled in Germany in July 2013.
- Poland: Etizolam may be scheduled under the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction and the State Sanitary Inspection -Article 27c.
- United Kingdom: Etizolam is not controlled as of July 2013.